2009年11月28日 星期六

馬達加斯加產枯葉變色龍的多樣性與"微特有性"由早期的山脈與後期的河川山脈阻隔所造就, 但與水份分布或上新世/更新世的氣候變遷無關

superlink: http://sysbio.oxfordjournals.org/content/vol58/issue6/images/large/sysbiosyp073f04_3c.jpeg

文獻來源: Townsend TM, Vieites DR, Glaw F, Vences M. 2009.
Testing Species-Level Diversification Hypotheses in Madagascar: The Case of Microendemic Brookesia Leaf Chameleons. Systematic Biology 58(6): 641-656.

Madagascar's flora and fauna are remarkable both for their diversity and supraspecific endemism. Moreover, many taxa contain large numbers of species with limited distributions. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this high level of microendemism, including 1) riverine barrier, 2) mountain refuge, and 3) watershed contraction hypotheses, the latter 2 of which center on fragmentation due to climatic shifts associated with Pliocene/Pleistocene glaciations. The Malagasy leaf chameleon genus Brookesia is a speciose group with a high proportion of microendemic taxa, thus making it an excellent candidate to test these vicariance scenarios. We used mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to construct a Brookesia phylogeny, and temporal concordance with Pliocene/Pleistocene speciation scenarios was tested by estimating divergence dates using a relaxed-clock Bayesian method. We strongly reject a role for Pliocene/Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in species-level diversification of Brookesia. We also used simulations to test the spatial predictions of the watershed contraction model in a phylogenetic context, independent of its temporal component, and found no statistical support for this model. The riverine barrier model is likewise a qualitatively poor fit to our data, but some relationships support a more ancient mountain refuge effect. We assessed support for the 3 hypotheses in a nonphylogenetic context by examining altitude and species richness and found a significant positive correlation between these variables. This is consistent with a mountain refuge effect but does not support the watershed contraction or riverine barrier models. Finally, we find repeated higher level east-west divergence patterns 1) between the 2 sister clades comprising the Brookesia minima group and 2) within the clade of larger leaf chameleons, which shows a basal divergence between western and eastern/northern siste


文獻來源: Leache AD. 2009. Species Tree Discordance Traces to Phylogeographic Clade Boundaries in North American Fence Lizards (Sceloporus). Systematic Biology 58(6): 547-559.

I investigated the impacts of phylogeographic sampling decisions on species tree estimation in the Sceloporus undulatus species group, a recent radiation of small, insectivorous lizards connected by parapatric and peripatric distribution across North America, using a variety of species tree inference methods (Bayesian estimation of species trees, Bayesian untangling of concordance knots, and minimize deep coalescences). Phylogenetic analyses of 16 specimens representing 4 putative species within S. "undulatus" using complete (8 loci, >5.5 kb) and incomplete (29 loci, >23.6 kb) nuclear data sets result in species trees that share features with the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genealogy at the phylogeographic level but provide new insights into the evolutionary history of the species group. The concatenated nuclear data and mtDNA data both recover 4 major clades connecting populations across North America; however, instances of discordance are localized at the contact zones between adjacent phylogeographic groups. A random sub-sampling experiment designed to vary the phylogeographic samples included across hundreds of replicate species tree inferences suggests that inaccurate species assignments can result in inferred phylogenetic relationships that are dependent upon which particular populations are used as exemplars to represent species and can lead to increased estimates of effective population size ({theta}). For the phylogeographic data presented here, reassigning specimens with introgressed mtDNA genomes to their prospective species, or excluding them from the analysis altogether, produces species tree topologies that are distinctly different from analyses that utilize mtDNA-based species assignments. Evolutionary biologists working at the interface of phylogeography and phylogenetics are likely to encounter multiple processes influencing gene trees congruence, which increases the relevance of estimating species trees with multilocus nuclear data and models that accommodate deep coalescence.


superlink: http://sysbio.oxfordjournals.org/content/vol58/issue4/images/large/sysbiosyp043f01_3c.jpeg

文獻來源: San Mauro, Diego;
David J. Gower, Tim Massingham, Mark Wilkinson, Rafael Zardoya and James A. Cot
ton. 2009. Experimental design in caecilian systematics: phylogenetic information of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rag1. Systematic Biology 58: 425-438.

In molecular phylogenetic studies, a major aspect of experimental design concerns the choice of markers and taxa. Although previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic performance of different genes and the effectiveness of increasing taxon sampling, their conclusions are partly contradictory, probably because they are highly context specific and dependent on the group of organisms used in each study. Goldman introduced a method for experimental design in phylogenetics based on the expected information to be gained that has barely been used in practice. Here we use this method to explore the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial (mt) genes, mt genomes, and nuclear rag1 for studies of the systematics of caecilian amphibians, as well as the effect of taxon addition on the stabilization of a controversial branch of the tree. Overall phylogenetic information estimates per gene, specific estimates per branch of the tree, estimates for combined (mitogenomic) data sets, and estimates as a hypothetical new taxon is added to different parts of the caecilian tree are calculated and compared. In general, the most informative data sets are those for mt transfer and ribosomal RNA genes. Our results also show at which positions in the caecilian tree the addition of taxa have the greatest potential to increase phylogenetic information with respect to the controversial relationships of Scolecomorphus, Boulengerula, and all other teresomatan caecilians. These positions are, as intuitively expected, mostly (but not all) adjacent to the controversial branch. Generating whole mitogenomic and rag1 data for additional taxa joining the Scolecomorphus branch may be a more efficient strategy than sequencing a similar amount of additional nucleotides spread across the current caecilian taxon sampling. The methodology employed in this study allows an a priori evaluation and testable predictions of the appropriateness of particular experimental designs to solve specific questions at different levels of the caecilian phylogeny.

2009年11月27日 星期五

又是一個製造恐慌的報導, 建中旁邊是不能有蛇喔?


"竟然有蛇出沒", 是怎樣, 有一個歷史幽久的植物園在那邊, 然後人類聚落那麼多老鼠水池中有那麼多青蛙的地方, 是不能有蛇嗎? 為什麼在都市中有蛇這麼值得記者大驚小怪? 喔我好討厭那個張心宇的口氣. 動不動就是"後果不堪設想", 那隨便一群流浪狗也很令人害怕啊, 為什麼不拿來報一報呢? 然後請問相關單位應該要做什麼? 把植物園整個燒掉嗎? 就算植物園不在那邊, 建中再過去一點和平西路再過去一點就是河堤了, 河堤外就又有草叢了, 那邊沒有蛇嗎? 台灣媒體是不是對野生動物太大驚小怪而且缺乏常識了? 這些報導從來就只把重點擺在"好可怕", 製造不必要的驚恐, 但是有那一個媒體真的去求證這兩條蛇倒底是什麼蛇? 就算是龜殼花好了, 媒體有沒有報導過一般民眾應該要怎麼處置呢? (絕對不是尖叫跑走或是把牠們打死) 還是只會找消防隊和一些什麼捕蛇達人來表演呢? 我想以台灣媒體的低能水平也只是假惺惺地關心學生或行人的安全, 但其實這類如點心般的新聞也只不過是要成就他們在畫面上那塊金光閃閃的獨家字眼.

2009年11月26日 星期四

黃帆鯽(=霓虹藍臀帆船鯽)終於有學名了 - Oreichthys crenuchoides

台灣市面上流通的黃帆鯽在過去經常被誤鑑定為Oreichthys parvusO. cosuatus, 但這條魚其實是個未描述的物種. 本文根據印度西孟加拉省產之標本將黃帆鯽描述為一個新種, Oreichthys crenuchoides.

文獻來源: Schäfer, F. (2009): Oreichthys crenuchoides, a new cyprinid fish from West Bengal, India. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 20 (3): 201-211.

Oreichthys crenuchoides, new species, from River Jorai, West Bengal, is distinguished from other species of Oreichthys by black blotch at caudal-fin base, 11-13 rows of pores on cheeks, 17-19 + 2 scales in longitudinal series, 7 scales in transverse series, blunt snout, anal fin without black spot or blotch, males with enlarged dorsal fin. Oreichthys cosuatis and O. parvus are re-diagnosed.

Frank Schäfer (AquaLog)

兩種產於中國雲南李仙江之華吸鰍屬新種 - Sinogastromyzon lixianjiangensis與S. macrostoma, 及一新記錄種

文獻來源: Liu, S.-W., Chen, X.-Y. & Yang, J.-X. (2009): Two new species and a new record of the genus Sinogastromyzon (Teleostei: Balitoridae) from Yunnan, China. Environmental Biology of Fish, DOI 10.1007/s10641-009-9554-8.

Two new species and a new record of Sinogastromyzon are described from Lixianjiang River of Yunnan province, China. Sinogastromyzon lixianjiangensis, new species, can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: pectoral fin with XIII–XIV, 15–17 rays; pelvic fin with X–XI, 10–12 rays; 60–65 lateral-line scales; no scales on the dorsum of paired fins or the region between axilla of pectoral fin and pelvic-fin origin; tip of pelvic fin close to anus; tip of anal fin close to caudal-fin base; anal-fin origin nearer to the caudal-fin base than to the posterior pelvic-fin base; anus nearer to anal-fin origin than to the posterior pelvic-fin base; dorsal side of the body with 9–11 black blotches. Sinogastromyzon macrostoma, new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: pectoral fin with XII–XIV, 12–15 rays; pelvic fin with VII–IX, 11–13 rays; 48–56 lateral-line scales; mouth extremely big, slightly arched; no scales on the dorsum of paired fins or the region between axilla of pectoral fin and pelvic-fin origin; tip of pelvic fin far beyond anus; tip of anal fin far from caudal-fin base; anal-fin origin about midway between the posterior pelvic-fin base and caudal-fin base; anus nearer to posterior pelvic-fin base than to anal-fin origin; dorsal side of the body uniformly gray, without regular blotches in formalin preserved specimen. Sinogastromyzon cf. multiocellum is firstly recorded in China.

Mastacembelus reygeli - 一個產於坦干依喀湖的棘鰍科新種

文獻來源: Vreven EJ, Snoecks J. 2009. A new mastacemblid species from Lake Tanganyika: a case of complex evolutionary history. Journal of Fish Biology 75(5): 1018-1047.

A detailed morphometric study of 123 specimens identified as Mastacembelus albomaculatus and the six syntypes of M. tanganicae was undertaken. On each specimen, 27 morphometric measurements and 12 meristics were taken. The type series of M. tanganicae contains more than one species, with four specimens attributed to a new species M. reygeli sp. nov. A redescription of M. albomaculatus and a description of the new species are provided. Both species are endemic to the northern and central part of Lake Tanganyika. They can be distinguished based on the number of caudal vertebrae [47–52 (median 49) in M. albomaculatus v. 42–46 (44) in M. reygeli sp. nov.], the total number of vertebrae [85–90 (88) v. 78–83 (81)] and the distance from the snout to the last externally visible dorsal spine (S-LDS) [61·8–67·0 (mean 64·0) v. 66·6–71·5 (68·6)% LS]. In addition, intermediate specimens and populations between M. albomaculatus and M. reygeli were discovered from several parts of the lake, but mainly from the southern part. The latter intermediate populations were provisionally identified as introgressed populations.

Mastacembelus simbi - 一種下剛果河流域產小型棘鰍之新種

文獻來源: Vreven, E. & Stiassny, M.L.J. (2009): Mastacembelus simbi, a new dwarf spiny eel (Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae) from the lower Congo River. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 20 (3): 213-222

Mastacembelus simbi, new species, is described from the middle reach of the main channel of the lower Congo River from the region of Lenga Lenga near the border with the Republic of Congo to just below Luozi (Democratic Republic of Congo). Based on a series of synapomorphic features of the neurocranium, suspensorium, infraorbital series, and caudal fin-rays the new species is placed in the crassus species complex, a small radiation endemic to the lower Congo River. Mastacembelus simbi is readily distinguished from all other members of the complex in being fully pigmented with a pattern characterised by an oblique bar on the cheek and a series of vertically oriented and irregularly shaped midlateral bars along the body. Uniquely among mastacembelids, M. simbi lacks a pterosphenoid bone in the neurocranium, lacks supracleithral sensory canals, lacks posttemporal tubules, and the infraorbital series is represented only by infraorbital 1. With a maximum size of 77.9 mm SL and the presence of well-developed eggs in at least one female specimen of 61.2 mm SL, M. simbi is considered a dwarf mastacembelid species.

印度東北部產擬拉格鮡屬(Pseudolaguvia)之二新種 - P. ferruginea與P. flavida

文獻來源: Ng, H.H. (2009): Two new species of Pseudolaguvia, sisorid catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from northeastern India. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 20 (3): 277-288.

This study describes two new species of Pseudolaguvia, a genus of miniature sisorid catfishes, from the Brahmaputra and Ganges river drainages in northeast India. The two new species (Pseudolaguvia ferruginea and P. flavida) are diagnosed from congeners by a combination of dorsal spine morphology, length of the thoracic adhesive apparatus, and relative measurements of the dorsal-fin base length, length of fin spines, adipose-fin base length, dorsal-to-adipose distance, caudal peduncle length and depth, body depth, head width, and snout length.

圖片提供: Dr. Heok Hee Ng (新加坡國立大學生物系Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research)

坦尚尼亞與莫三比克產虹彩鱂複合群之二新種 - N. lucius與N. makondorum

文獻來源: Wildekamp, R.H., Shidlovskiy, K.M. & Watters, B.R. (2009): Systematics of the Nothobranchius melanospilus species group (Cyprinodontiformes: Nothobranchiidae) with description of two new species from Tanzania and Mozambique. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 20 (3): 237-254.

Nothobranchius makondorum, new species, and N. lucius, new species, from the coastal plains of Tanzania and Mozambique are described. Both are members of a “N. melanospilus species group”. Nothobranchius makondorum and N. lucius can be distinguished from the other species of the group by male and female coloration, cytology and results of mitochondrial DNA analyses. Nothobranchius makondorum is similar to N. melanospilus in morphology but differs in the female coloration being characterized by sparse, often barely visible spots on the body, which, in some individuals, are arranged in an interrupted chevron pattern. Nothobranchius lucius differs from its congeners by a more elongate body, a longer head and more densely distributed dark brown spots on the body, head and fins of the female. The position of N. hengstleri within the N. melanospilus species is confirmed based on mtDNA data.

緬甸豹紋斑馬(=紫環燕子燈)(Danio sp. Burma)有學名了 - Danio tinwini

文獻來源: Kullander, S.O. & Fang, F. (2009): Danio tinwini, a new species of spotted danio from northern Myanmar (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 20 (3): 223-228.

Danio tinwini, new species, is described from the upper course of the Mogaung Chaung, a right bank tributary of the Ayeyarwaddy River. It is distinguished from other species of Danio above all by the colour pattern, comprised of rows of dark spots along the side, and spotted dorsal, anal, pelvic, and caudal fins. From D. kyathit, with similar colour pattern, it is distinguished by the absence of lateral line and rostral barbel. From D. nigrofasciatus, which it resembles in small size, absence of lateral line and rostral barbel, and lateral stripe P-1 expressed as a row of spots, it is distinguished by the dorsal-fin count ii.6 { (vs. ii.7 {), and stripes P and P+1 expressed as rows of spots instead of as solid stripes. Danio tinwini is one of the smallest species of Danio, males reaching up to 21.7 mm SL, females up to 25.6 mm SL.

圖片提供: 廖德裕博士

Danio quagga - 一種產於緬甸西部的斑馬魚新種

文獻來源: Kullander, S.O., Liao, T.Y. & Fang, F. (2009): Danio quagga, a new species of striped danio from western Myanmar (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 20 (3): 193-199.

Danio quagga, new species, is described from the Chindwin River drainage near Kalaymyo and Tamu, western Myanmar. It is similar to D. kyathit from the Ayeyarwaddy and upper Chindwin River, but differs in having four to five contrasting dark stripes along the side, instead of rows of spots along the side, and shorter barbels. Danio quagga is similar in colour pattern to the zebrafish, D. rerio, but differs in having four instead of three distinct dark bands above the pectoral fin, and in absence of dark bands on the caudal fin lobes.

圖片來源: 由廖德裕博士提供


Ageneiosus sp. cf. piperatus 玻璃虎鯨# x 21
Corydoras orphnopterus 斑鰭鼠(=雪花斑鰭)# x 5
Corydoras spectabilis (沒有尾斑的)黑腰豹* x 4
Channa sp. cf. "redfin" (???) or burmanica (??) 橙斑雷龍(=夢幻橙斑雷龍, 克倫尼翠玉雷龍, 血斑雷龍二型) x 3
Boraras brigittae 一線小丑燈 x 4
Compsaraia samueli 恐龍飛刀*# x 4
Colomesus asellus 南美娃娃* x 6
Carinotetraodon travancoricus 巧克力娃娃* x 16
Pseudomugil furcatus 霓虹燕子* x 15
Helostoma temmincki 綠色接吻魚# x 1

先說那隻玻璃虎鯨. 這條魚因為是Ageneiosus屬(和帝王虎鯨同一屬), 所以一開始讓我有一點疑慮: 這養得起來嗎? 原因是Ageneiosus屬的魚在白天通常都在睡覺, 晚上才四處亂游, 遇到什麼吃什麼. 也就是說白天睡覺時怕被打擾, 晚上吃東西又可能咬到其它魚, 所以和這類魚混養的魚最好是不要太好動. 不過這條魚又很小, 4-5cm的體型可能是Ageneiosus中最小的魚, 那麼牠要吃什麼呢? 今天看到實魚以後讓我安了一點心, 因為這條魚比起其它什麼條紋虎鯨或高背紫虎鯨活潑很多, 在中度的光照下也會群泳, 雖然說在取食上沒有雙黑尾小虎鯨或是大口藍鯨那麼主動, 但是丟紅蟲還是會吃的. 不過玻璃虎鯨的鑑定有一點小小的疑問. Eigenmann在1912年於其著作The freshwater fishes of British Guiana, including a study of the ecological grouping of species and the relation of the fauna of the plateau to that of the lowlands(全文下載)中描述了Tympanopleura piperata這條魚(=Ageneiosus piperatus). 其模式產地為蓋亞那的"Crab Falls"(位於Río Cuyuní, 古幽尼河). 但這個模式產地離秘魯有點遠(這次的魚由秘魯出口), 這大概也是為什麼鯰魚星球上把玻璃虎鯨標示為"類似piperatus"的原因.

至於那個橙斑雷龍相當有趣. 算是近期引進的小型鱧科魚類中很漂亮的種類. 但是這與論壇上所說的"Channa redfin"一樣嗎? 其實我不是非常確定論壇上所說的"Channa redfin'是否都是指同一條魚? 有興趣的人參考一下這位大大的看法. 日本也把redfin稱為Kabuki, 但我很難相信日本人講的Kabuki(=redfin)與華洋水族引進的這條魚是一模一樣的. 基本上Benz大大所說的"血斑雷龍二型"是比較可能是Channa "redfin", 阿頭上就斑斑點點啊, "Redfin"其實就是台族水族引進的"印弟安雷龍". 然後Benz大大所說的"新雷龍"就是橙斑雷龍. 這類小型的眼眶紅紅的鰭邊也有點紅的鱧魚在日本市場上有幾個名稱: ビルマレッドフィンスネークヘッド (意指緬甸潛水艇雷龍), チャンナsp.ファイヤーエッジ(意指紅邊雷龍), 以及チャンナsp.ファイヤーアイズ(也就是夢幻血斑雷龍英名的日語拼音). 但我認為前兩者根本就是一樣的東西. 這次輸入的魚的報價單上寫的是"burmanica'. 但是網路上burmanica實魚照片在鑑定上的可信度還有待評估, 網路上的確有重製Chaudhuri在1919年發表burmanica的手繪圖(見此連結), 但是和實魚像不像呢(看這邊這邊)? 好像不太對捏. 所以, 橙斑雷龍會是burmanica嗎? 我其實有點懷疑.

另外的一個議題是由白安妮鼠(駭客鼠)(Corydoras C91)和斑鰭鼠(Corydoras orphnopterus)所引發的. C91與長鼻一線帝王鼠(=長吻納奇鼠)(Corydoras C92)被認為是兩個共域物種, 前者是短吻的, 後者是長吻的, 不過這個mimicry complex好像缺乏了半長吻種類的參與. 當我看到斑鰭鼠的時候, 讓我忽然想到: 難道牠也加入了這個擬態群嗎? 不過問題在於C91與C92的實際採集地點並未在很多書上提到. 直到最近Glaser才提到C91的採集地點是秘魯的Rio Huallaga, 那麼斑鰭鼠會在這個地點被發現嗎? 根據Weitzman & Nijsseni (1970)的文章指出斑鰭鼠的模式產地是位於Río Bobonaza, 這個區域其實是帕茲塔流域的一個支流, 與Rio Huallaga一個由西北往東南流, 另一個由西南往東北流, 所以牠們真的有可能共棲嗎? 或只是因為長得像讓我們產生的錯覺? 另一個"具有側線1/2-1/3黑色線條"的鼠群則是所謂的"Corydoras Mususu". 同樣產在秘魯, 但是地點不詳. 如果這些物種的確實產地可以被弄清楚就很有幫助了.

魚隻來源: 石頭水族&APT#, 台族水族*, 華洋水族
圖片來源與連結: 辜俊益, Charm樂天市場店, AQUA SHOP EVE

2009年11月24日 星期二

寵物魚變「魚斯拉」 威脅北美河流生態


寵物魚變「魚斯拉」 威脅北美河流生態
2009.11.24 07:10 am


鱧魚(Snakehead fish)源於中國,又稱蛇頭魚。近年來它在美國媒體上可說是惡名昭彰,「國家地理頻道」(National Geographic)節目甚至拿「酷斯拉」一詞做文章,把嚴重侵略北美河流生態的鱧魚冠上「魚斯拉」(Fishzilla)的可怕綽號。


據美國農業部資料,鱧魚最早入侵美國河流的書面紀錄是2002年。當時馬里蘭州發現了一隻烏鱧(Northern Snakehead),又稱北方蛇頭魚。

直到今天,美國東部沿岸從麻薩諸塞州、紐約州、賓州、北卡羅來納州一直到佛羅里達州,都證實有烏鱧在河流出沒。靠近芝加哥的密西根湖及遠在美國西岸的加州銀木湖(Silverwood Lake),也都證實有烏鱧的出現。


迪維爾索(Chris Deverso)在家中魚缸裏養一隻叫「洛基」(Rocky)的鱧魚有11年,不只當寵物,也當成家庭成員之一。





陳姓男子攜帶116隻鳥類及30隻保育龜回台 查獲送辦

陳姓男子攜帶116隻鳥類及30隻保育龜回台 查獲送辦










superlink: http://www.trafficj.org/news/images/090223SoutheastAsiaBoxTurtle.jpg

Cuora amboinensis 大隻馬來箱龜 x 3 (代大大保管)
Corydoras adolfoi ??? 好奇怪紅頭鼠 x 5

[怎麼怪呢? 有空再說]

魚隻來源: 石頭水族 & APT
圖片連結: TRAFFIC Japan

2009年11月23日 星期一

越南中部產華海鯰(鮠科)之一新種 - Tachysurus spilotus

文獻來源: Ng HH. 2009. Tachysurus spilotus, a new species of catfish from central Vietnam (Teleostei: Bagridae). Zootaxa 2283: 16-28.

Tachysurus spilotus, a new species of catfish from central Vietnam, is described. It can be distinguished from congeners except T. argentivittatus, T. longispinalis, and T. virgatus in having a color pattern consisting of black longitudinal stripes on a pale body (vs. with a uniform-colored body with pale patches or transverse bands on a dark body, or with dark rectangular patches on a pale body). It differs from both T. argentivittatus and T. virgatus in snout shape and having gently convex (vs. straight) posterior edges of the caudal-fin lobes; and from T. longispinalis in having a shorter dorsalfin spine (ca. 27% SL vs. 15.1–19.0) and maxillary barbels (shorter, vs. longer than head). Tachysurus mica is shown here to be conspecific with—and a junior synonym of—T. argentivittatus.

除模式種外, 古旗鱂屬(Archiaphyosemion)的其它種類應轉入新屬Nimbapanchax, 而梅氏旗鱂(Aphyosemion maeseni)實為扁鱂屬(Epiplatys)的成員

文獻來源: Sonnenberg R, Bushc E. 2009. Description of a new genus and two new species of killifish (Cyprinodontiformes: Nothobranchiidae) from West Africa, with a discussion of the taxonomic status of Aphyosemion maeseni Poll, 1941. Zootaxa 2294: 1-22.

The phylogeny of the West African genus Archiaphyosemion was studied with mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. The results of the combined dataset presented here did not support a monophyletic group. After the exclusion of the type species of the genus, A. guineense, the remaining species form a well-supported monophyletic group. Based on these molecular results and supported by morphological data, we suggest a new name for this group, Nimbapanchax, new genus. Additionally, based on a recent collection in Guinea, two new Nimbapanchax species were described. The taxon Nimbapanchax leucopterygius, new species, is described for a nothobranchiid fish formerly misidentified as Archiaphyosemion maeseni (Poll, 1941). Nimbapanchax melanopterygius, new species, is described from the Mount Nimba region in southeastern Guinea. Both new Nimbapanchax species are clearly distinguished from their congeners by the coloration pattern of adult males. The results of the DNA data support the assumption based on color pattern and morphological characters that the new described species are sister taxa. The type of Aphyosemion maeseni Poll, 1941 was reexamined and transferred to the genus Epiplatys, a decision based on diagnostic morphological characters.


Corydoras ortegai 屏東產新雄貓鼠(歐緹格鼠) x 若干


魚隻來源: 永信水族(屏東)
圖片連結: Aqua-Nager

2009年11月22日 星期日

巨型球馬陸的親緣關係顯示其起源自岡瓦納大陸, 並應新增兩科Procyliosomatidae與Arthrosphaeridae分別放置紐澳以及馬達加斯加與印度物種


文獻來源: Wesener T, VandenSpiegel D. 2009. A first phylogenetic analysis of Giant Pill-Millipedes (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida), a new model Gondwanan taxon, with special emphasis on island gigantism. Cladistics 25: 545-573. [連結]

The phylogeny of the Giant Pill-Millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, is investigated using a new morphological character matrix comprising 89 characters. The majority of these characters are employed for the first time in millipedes. All trees obtained agree on the monophyletic status of the Sphaerotheriida and several of its tribes, each restricted to a modern land mass. The species from Madagascar displaying island gigantism do not form a monophyletic group. The classic division of Giant Pill-Millipedes into two families, Sphaerotheriidae and Zephronidae, was not reflected in the analysis. The genus Procyliosoma is the sister-group to all other Sphaerotheriida, rendering the family Sphaerotheriidae paraphyletic. A new family-level classification of Giant Pill-Millipedes, based on the current phylogeny, is introduced. The new family Procyliosomatidae contains only the genus Procyliosoma, distributed in Australia and New Zealand. The family Zephronidae remains unchanged, while the family Sphaerotheriidae now incorporates only the African Giant Pill-Millipede genera. All genera from southern India and Madagascar form a monophyletic group and are placed in the new family Arthrosphaeridae. The Malagasy genus Sphaeromimus is more closely related to the Indian Arthrosphaera species than to other genera from Madagascar. A biogeographical analysis identifies the group as a Gondwana taxon (with a notable absence from South America). The current phylogeny of Giant Pill-Millipede families mirrors perfectly the suggested break-up of Gondwana fragments 160–90 Ma. No evidence for a dispersal event could be found, highlighting the importance of Giant Pill-Millipedes as a potential model taxon.

亞洲鯉入侵 密西根湖拉警報

  • 華爾街日報的原文請參考此處
  • 美國EPA的說明在此
  • 所謂的亞洲鯉其實不是指單一的物種, 而是泛指由東亞引入北美洲的四種中大型鯉科魚類(見Asian Carp Management)
  • 所謂的亞洲鯉(可能指的是某種鰱魚)會跳出水面據說令人討厭的影片請見此
  • 這些魚種在台灣都是外來種, 雖然有食用價值, 但是台灣政府似乎從來不認為這些過去由漢人移民由中國引進的大型鯉科魚類早就摧毀台灣的水域環境, 反而經常放流說是增加漁業資源而從未管制或限制擴散? 還是說只要能吃都無所謂?
亞洲鯉入侵 密西根湖拉警報【世界日報╱編譯中心芝加哥20日電】
2009.11.22 04:24 am




聯邦環保署(EPA)資深顧問戴維斯(Cameron Davis)說:「亞洲鯉有如癌細胞,牠們繁殖的速度非常快,消滅其他生物。」



【2009/11/22 世界日報】

2009年11月20日 星期五


我在2008年5月表過一些論壇上賣東西的白目, 今年又想要提名這個, 以後可能要弄一個年度10大白目類型, 年年比較白目的演化速度. 除了去年提過的白目外, 今年發現比較多的是以下這些:
  • 我只是個學生, 我沒有錢, 有人不想養想送的嗎? 我想領養星龜, 歐陸, 紅腿, 櫻桃....(都是CITES物種呢)
  • 我的魚昨天才買回去為什麼今天就死了~~~(就一直撒奶一直嘟嘴)
  • 別人只是po一些愛魚/爬/寵物照片, 然後他回應的時候千篇一律都是: 大大請報價(含運), 3Q...(有人說要賣你嗎?)
  • 板規不看愛跟貼圖, 搞得整個討論串亂七八糟, 人家問鼠魚, 你給我跟貼泥鰍, 別人指正, 就哭哭啼啼說大大好兇
  • 跟版友千拜託萬拜託賣他東西(而且是低價友情價), 說會好好照顧牠的, 然後馬上就看到他在其它地方出手賣出
  • 不管賣什麼都馬說很會吃強壯易上手, 一看照片根本都快掛了 (王者蜥, 巨蜥(斷尾斷趾), 瘤尾守宮等居多)
  • 跑到別人店裏用手機拍照, 然後說這是他店裏(或家裏)拍的, 還說什麼養一年多很穩之類的
  • 動不動就"不養了隨便賣", 也就是說這些生物從來沒有被好好地照顧
  • 天真地想要以低價幻想物種換高價物種(且不貼差價), 例如"黃化巴西龜"(阿巴西龜總是有一點黃黃的)換櫻桃紅腿', 或"豹紋守宮換黃金歐陸"之類的
  • 查詢那個ID, 發的帖子9成9都是"請報價", 就是那種只對價錢感興趣, 但是對生物本身沒興趣, 只想亂買東西來消耗, 卻不知道自己要什麼的
  • .....[想到會繼續加]


詳細內容請參考TRAFFIC之網頁, 並由此下載pdf檔(共82頁).


Corydoras sp. (=コリドラス sp セミロングノーズフレックス) 澤苑牌白玉黑箭鼠(=投肯廷斯帝王鼠半長吻型) x 4 (典故看這邊)
Corydoras C63 (= Corydoras sp. Tocantins longnose, コリドラス ロングノーズトカンチーニョ) 投肯廷私帝王鼠長吻型 x 1
Corydoras sp. 澤苑牌怪怪鼠 x 1 (有點像這個又有一點像這個)
Corydoras elegans or pestai x 2 (還沒養穩待確定)
Corydoras sp. "melanistius longnose Rio Guama" (=コリドラス メラニスチウス ロングノーズタイプ) 大聯盟怪怪鼠 (=黑鰭芝麻鼠, =老爹上某網路賣家所說的長吻雙色鼠) x 5
Botia (Sinobotia) pulchra 華麗沙鰍 x 1

所謂的"大聯盟怪怪鼠"其實在老爹上也是有人賣的(見此), 但是賣家使用"長吻雙色鼠"這個名稱, 就讓我覺得這個名字有一點被混淆了.

先說從頭. 長鼻雙色鼠這個中名一開始指的是Corydoras amandajanea這隻鼠(至於它與皇冠黑背鼠C. crypticus, 也就是石頭水族&APT所稱的皇冠紅頭豹鼠無點型, 是否同種則是另一個議題), 最早在2007年進口一批, 2008年8月華洋水族到貨一批, 然後在2009年6月石頭水族&APT又進口一批, 改稱皇冠紅頭豹鼠細點型. 無論如何, 長鼻雙色鼠一名原本是指amandajanea.

市面上最常見的"長鼻雙色鼠", 也就是我們常說的"西屯路長鼻雙色鼠"又是怎麼來的? 市面上有種鼠叫"雙色鼠", 它其實不是真正的C. bicolor, 只是一種類似bicolor, 然後與C. brevirostris(產在委內瑞拉的Orinoco流域)C. melanistius(產在蓋亞那)關係不清楚的鼠魚. 在這種所謂的雙色鼠中, 會混雜著一種半長吻鼠魚, 這種半長吻鼠魚, 也就是我們所說的"西屯路長鼻雙色鼠", 在過去的文獻與網路上經常被誤稱為melanistius, 其實應該是錯的, 因為melanistius的本尊模式標本是條短吻鼠魚. 那這條鼠魚的學名又應該暫時如何標示呢? 日本人把具有這樣斑紋的物種都叫作"Corydoras melanistius longnose or semi-longnose", 可是如果看看I Love Corydoras上的照片, 我很難相信那些照片所代表的是同一個物種.

我所能找到所謂的"Corydoras melanistius longnose"在日本鼠魚市場上使用的確認記錄是Aqua Magazine在1999年介紹Tocantins流域與臨近系統產鼠魚時所提到的(見上面兩個圖). 而所謂的"Guama"產者看起來最可能是大聯盟怪怪鼠, 請注意其側線黑斑在肛門以後是連起來的, 與一般市面上的大不相同.

石頭水族&APT在2009年8月引進"黑鰭芝麻鼠"時, 因為魚剛到, 全身白白的沒斑點, 我們還曾經以為可能是CW025. 當時日本市場也出現一樣的魚, 被標示為'"Corydoras melanistius Carrera"(コリドラス メラニスチウス カレラ)或"Corydoras melanistius Guyana"(コリドラス メラニスチウス エキセボ). 可是Carrera在巴西聖保羅附近, 與蓋亞那也差太遠了吧? 然後我們飼養一陣子之後發現全身的斑點都跑出來了(參考魚達康上Opel所貼的). 養著養著, 我越來越覺得其實石頭&APT的黑鰭芝麻鼠就是大聯盟怪怪鼠. 只是石頭&APT進口的魚體較小罷了.

  • 大聯盟怪怪鼠可能就是黑鰭芝麻鼠, 也就是鼠魚春秋上所標示的CWS095, 暫時可以Corydoras melanistius longnose "Guama"或"Tocantins"標記. 但牠們並不是真正的melanistius, 而且極易與台灣市面上任何一種以"雙色鼠"或"馬鞍鼠"販售的物種混淆.
  • 市售的長鼻雙色鼠(=長吻雙色鼠)有兩種. 一種是C. amandajanea (量少, =石頭&APT進口的皇冠紅頭豹鼠); 另一種較常見的可能是網路上與一般圖鑑定上所認定的C. melanistius, 但這條魚依然不是真正的melanistius.
魚隻來源: 澤苑水族, 水族大聯盟
圖片連結: 水族大聯盟 (photo cred: 蔡政宏), Aqua Nager

2009年11月19日 星期四


Corydoras napoensis 藍紋鼠(印尼線人工魚) x 10
Channa sp. cf. gachua Myanmar 印第安雷龍 x 4
Schistura poculi 紅尾豹紋鰍(=密帶南鰍) x 5
Crenicichla ? 鑽石孔雀龍(島產魚, 學名待確認, 一下子不確定是那一種) x 7 (實驗用魚, 希望夠聰明)

所謂的"印第安雷龍"指的不是曾經被南部盤商稱為"印第安戰艦"的"夢幻血斑雷龍"(Channa sp. "fire & Ice"), 乍看會覺得是gachua種群的東東, 不過產地不明, 只知道是緬甸線的魚.

雖然沒有買, 但是我實在是少見多怪, 原來, 連鯉科的Puntius這類的東西都有人工雜交種啊? 台族水族近日進口的"紅線彩虹鯽", 原本我搞不清楚是啥玩意兒, 後來才知道是一眉道人(Puntius denisonii)與皇冠彩虹鯽(Puntius everetti)的雜交產物. 另外所謂的"金光五間鯽"的進口報單上使用的學名是"Puntius johorensis" (類似五線鯽P. lineatus的東東), 但實際上應該就是俗稱的五間鯽Puntius pentazona. 至於Puntius, Barbus, Barbodes這些魚在水族市場上都被叫"鯽"是有一點科學上的不精確, 不過因為鯉科魚類的中文名都不太是一般人唸得出來的(魞, 鯇, 鰍鮀....), 這個問題就再討論了.

魚隻來源: 台族水族
圖片提供: 台族水族

20億出口值 水族中心將開工

這樣的意思是說, 以後台灣弄出什麼雜交的東東都會有記錄可查? 然後親本資訊都會透明? 不再會有什麼品系混亂的問題嗎?

20億出口值 水族中心將開工【聯合晚報╱記者彭宣雅/台北報導】

2009.11.18 03:02 pm





2009年11月16日 星期一

棄養寵物/收容所 兩棲爬蟲最多

棄養寵物/收容所 兩棲爬蟲最多 【聯合報╱記者邱瓊玉/台北報導】 2009.11.16 03:11 am












棄養寵物/市價看俏 助長走私

棄養寵物/市價看俏 助長走私 【聯合報╱記者邱瓊玉/台北報導】 2009.11.16 03:11 am










小寵物變怪物 棄養外來種為患

小寵物變怪物 棄養外來種為患 【聯合報╱記者邱瓊玉/台北報導】 2009.11.16 03:11 am







2009年11月14日 星期六


Corydoras "new evelynae" 新煙圈鼠 (=普魯斯煙圈鼠) x 2
Corydoras "Resex" shortnose (=Corydoras "Jutai") 紅頭黑箭鼠 x 5
Corydoras adolfoi 紅頭鼠 x 19
Corydoras C121 皇冠紅頭鼠 x 8
Corydoras duplicareus 黑金紅頭鼠 x 4
Corydoras elegans "Purus" 普魯斯青背紳士鼠 x 2
Corydoras haraldschultzi (?) x 2
Pseudanos trimaculatus 紅珍珠鉛筆 (=珍珠巨型鉛筆 馬拉卡普魯Manacapuru產) x 5


圖片來源: 石頭水族&APT (photo credit: 辜俊益)

2009年11月13日 星期五

其實這些立委也只是選擇性地對寵物展現所謂的愛心與關懷, 他們那裏知道動物保護的問題在那裏?

我沒有說動物社會研究會播放這些影片沒有意義, 而是我懷疑處理流浪動物到頭來所有的辦法會不會都是為了貓狗而設計的. 同樣是智能生物, 被棄養或逃逸的爬行動物, 非貓狗的其它動物, 都是由消防隊處理(或吃掉), 但我從來沒看過什麼動保團體出來靠腰說消防隊處置蟒蛇啦, 大綠鬣蜥的手段粗暴之類的, 所有的媒體和那些ptt鄉民也覺得"貓狗真可憐", 但其它東西都是"好可怕最好別出現". 所以說如果所謂的動物保護對這些動保團體來說就同等於貓狗保護, 那麼我就會認為這是假的, 選擇性的正義. 好, 這些立委對畜牧處開刀有什麼用? 柿子挑軟的吃嗎? 畜牧處管的是家畜, 也就是哺乳類的東西, 那麼非哺乳類的寵物的動物權算是誰管呢? 林務局? 漁業署? 建設局? 我們來看一下動物保護法的總則, 其實並非指貓狗而已, 也就是說, 同樣是"流浪在外"的動物, 對貓狗與巨蜥啦, 蟒蛇啦, 陸龜啦, 鬣蜥啦, 處理邏輯就應該是一樣的. 如果這些立委真的很關心這些動物的動物權, 那麼就不要只會靠杯揚言刪預算露出一副惡婆婆嘴臉. 如果處理流浪貓狗不應該是"環境保護"業務, 那麼請思考一下, 如何把台灣這麼多動物科學(原稱畜牧), 獸醫, 野生動物管理, 水產養殖的學生專家學者納入這個行政體系所需要的人才範圍, 例如動物保育員之類的, 而不要只想搞一些約聘的擴大就業短命方案來衝政府業積, 應該讓這些人才發揮功能的時候, 又在那邊靠杯財政困難.

經委會決議農委會設動保處 否則拒審預算

2009-11-12 新聞速報 中央社








農委會副主委王政騰說明,一般流浪犬貓若 7天內沒人收養或健康不佳,就會安樂死;相關工作必須與地方政府協調處理,地方政府不當處理,明天(13日)會匯整回報農委會。







2009年11月11日 星期三


hyperlink: http://lazovzap.dvo.ru/pictures/elapdion.jpg
hyperlink: http://www.mattreptiles.com/Terrariophilie/Fiches/Fichesvenimeux/cyanea/files/page20_1.jpg
hyperlink: http://azumanettaigyo.com/02tsuhan/Pufferfish/Pufferfish_Image/Carinotetraodon_salivator.jpg

Channa burmanica
夢幻橙斑雷龍, 血斑雷龍二型, 克倫尼翠玉雷龍) x 4
Eirmotus octozona 玻璃八間鯽 x 10 (參考一下Jerry的blog)
Micropoecilia picta 匹克特花將 x 20
Carinotetraodon salivator 紅斑馬娃娃 x 2
Monocirrhus polyacanthus 枯葉魚 x 3
Boiga cyanea 綠林蛇 x 1
Elaphe dione 白條錦蛇 x 2

[再談....Channa burmanica好像是真品耶]

魚隻來源: 華洋水族
圖片連結: 東熱帶魚研究所, mattreptiles.com, lazovzap.dvo.ru


隨便一個論壇的交易贈送區(還是棄養區?)99%都是大型魚, 為什麼會有這麼多人無力負擔大型魚的飼養開銷與照護卻仍然執意要養? 這是消費者自己常識不足? 還是業者沒有盡到教育顧客的責任(當然很多客人是講不聽的)? 還是因為台灣就是一個喜新厭舊隨便慣了的社會呢?

養狗熱潮後 棄養潮接著來 【聯合報╱記者王紀青、王昭月/高雄縣報導】
2009.11.11 06:51 am







2009年11月10日 星期二

中國廣西珠江水系產泉水魚屬一新種 - Pseudogyrinocheilus longisculcus

文獻來源: Zheng JP, Chen XY, Yang JX. 2009. A new species of genus Pseudogyrinocheilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Guangxi, China. Environmental Biology of Fishes. DOI: 10.1007/s10641-009-9555-7

A new species, Pseudogyrinocheilus longisulcus, was discovered from a tributary of Pearl River in Jingxi Co., Guangxi, China, The new species can be distinguished from other species of Pseudogyrinocheilus by the following combination of characteristics: prolonged post-labial grooves, and extended antero-medially close to anterior end of middle lower lip, but not meeting with its counterpart; posterior margin of lower lip free; scales of abdomen from thorax to pectoral-fin base embedded under skin; lateral-line scales 40–42; dark stripe longitudinal along lateral line on flank. The key to the species of Pseudogyrinocheilus is provided.

圖片超連結: http://www.springerlink.com/content/4k7711w521173761/MediaObjects/10641_2009_9555_Fig1_HTML.gif

中國雲南省薩爾溫江(怒江)流域紋胸鮡屬一新種 - Glyptothorax obliquimaculatus

文獻來源: Jiang WS, Chen XY, Yang JX. 2009. A new species of sisorid catfish genus Glyptothorax (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from Salween drainage of Yunnan, China. Environmental Biology of Fishes DOI: 10.1007/s10641-009-9572-6

A new species of the genus Glyptothorax, Glyptothorax obliquimaculatus sp. nov. is described from the Xiaohei River, a tributary of the Nanting River, Salween drainage, in southwestern Yunnan province, China. This new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characteristics: unculiferous ridges of the thoracic adhesive apparatus extending anteriorly onto the gular region; body with irregular dark blotches scattered along lateral surface (blotches mostly oblique); skin smooth on head and body; dorsal spine smooth without serrations on its posterior margin; lips smooth; posterior margin of pectoral spine with 7–8 serrations; dorsal-fin base 11.0–13.2% SL; pectoral-fin length 15.6–19.6% SL; depth of caudal peduncle 8.6–9.8% SL; head width 19.1–24.0% SL; nasal barbel length 23.3–33.3% HL.

圖片超連結: http://www.springerlink.com/content/y1141v252j307614/MediaObjects/10641_2009_9572_Fig1_HTML.jpg


superlink: http://pds.exblog.jp/pds/1/200905/16/64/f0083964_20275396.jpg
Corydoras Tocantins semi-longnose 投肯廷斯帝王鼠 半長/尖吻 x 5 (故事看這邊)
Corydoras Tocantins short-nose 投肯廷斯帝王鼠 短吻 x 5 (=C. Yuuna?)
Corydoras "Resex" semi-longnose (=Corydoras sp. aff. armatus "Glaser") 紅頭黑箭鼠 半長/尖吻 (=尼格羅一間鼠) x 6
Corydoras leucomelas 黑豆豹鼠 (?) x 5
Corydoras eques 青鼠 (=尼格羅青鼠) x 8
Corydoras new evelynae 巴西煙圈鼠 (新煙圈鼠) x 1
Tatia intermedia "雅夢達銀河豹鯨" (=就是一般的銀河豹鯨) x 5 (並非報價單上的T. galaxias)
Micralestes stormsi 翠綠小丑鯽中混到的類似紅翅綠剛果 x 2

今天有兩個重點, 首先是日本叫"Corydoras "Resex"的紅頭黑箭鼠也輸入德國了, 然後Glaser也很天才地把這條魚叫作"Corydoras sp. aff. armatus", 意思就是說"近似高身米老鼠". 這兩條魚根本一點關係也沒有, 實在也很會想像.' 不過Glaser透露了重要的資訊, 也就是說這條魚和共棲的半長吻物種採自巴西的Jutai. Aquafin便將2009年11月進口的新個體稱為"コリドラス ジュタイ"(Corydoras Jutai). 另一個問題就是所謂的"銀河豹鯨"長期以來的鑑定錯誤. 所謂的"銀河"譯自"galaxias"這個種小名. 然而台灣水族界所稱的銀河豹鯨其實有三種, 一種是身上有一堆小長斑的物種, 也就是Tatia intermedia, 然而日本人寫的什麼2100種, 2300種, 2800種, 一直把intermedia誤鑑定為galaxias, 而中文版就把那條魚稱作"銀河豹鯨"了. 那"正牌銀河豹鯨galaxias"呢? 目前為止我只見過sample魚, 在市面上完全沒有見過其流通. 另外一種被台灣水族界稱為銀河豹鯨的則是Tatia brunnea, 這是一個成體可達20cm的種類, 去年在台中西屯路有不少. 此外, Tatia屬的魚身上的斑點會隨著成長變長, 變大, 且變淡, 因此體型較小的intermedia身上的淡藍色斑點的確令人容易誤認為galaxias. 至於青鼠這玩意兒, 南美洲的供貨商也經常以"eques"名義賣魚, 不管是哥倫比亞或是秘魯的出口商都宣稱有這東西. 但是過去的經驗顯示絕大多數的"eques"都只是拿一些"綠綠的鼠"來充數. 所以後來就開始出現什麼"委內瑞拉青鼠"(但不是Corydoras venezuelanus), "阿勇牌青鼠"或"千銘牌青鼠"(其實都是elegans種群的魚). 等我們最近拿到這些物種再做一些比較.

圖片連結: 石頭水族&APT, リミックス名東店熱帯魚 (photo credit: menettai)

是不是要請特物中心還是內政部每年都辦一些蛇類與胡蜂類的講習, 以免一天到晚有打虎救父式的這種新聞出現

百步蛇侵入民宅【聯合報╱記者張明慧/即時報導】2009.11.09 08:55 pm


【2009/11/09 聯合報】

2009年11月9日 星期一

綠島生態戰 教授捕蜥缺銀彈

綠島生態戰 教授捕蜥缺銀彈
2009-11-09 中國時報 黃力勉/台東報導