2009年9月30日 星期三


文獻來源: Masroor R. 2009. A new arboreal species of Cyrtopodion (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Deh Akro-II Wetlands Complex, Sindh, Pakistan. Zootaxa 2243: 57–67 (2009)

A distinctive new thin-toed gecko, Cyrtopodion dehakroense sp. nov. is described from Deh Akro-II Wetlands Complex, Nawabshah, Sindh, bringing the number of species of this genus in Pakistan to nine. The major diagnostic characters of the new species include the presence of 7–9 very narrow, V-shaped, dark brown, transverse dorsal bands on the body from the nape to the level of the vent, four precloacal pores in males, absence of femoral pores, 21–25 rows of ventral scales across midbody, 92–102 scales along ventral midline of body, and presence of paired subcaudal scales under the post-pygal portion of the tail. The species is a desert form and has thus far been found only in sandy areas of this wetlands complex at mean elevations of about 10 m. Strictly nocturnal, it inhabits old-growth trees of Prosopis cineraria (Jand/Kandi) and feeds mainly on a variety of insects.


文獻來源: Garutti V, Langeani F. 2009. Redescription of Astyanax goyacensis Eigenmann, 1908 (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 7(3):371-376, 2009

Astyanax goyacensis Eigenmann, 1908 is redescribed based on the holotype and 25 topotypes. The species belongs to the A. bimaculatus species complex, sharing with those species a black, horizontally ovate, humeral spot (the most conspicuous feature of this complex), two diffuse vertical brown bars in the humeral area (the first through humeral spot and the second 2-3 scales behind), and black medium caudal-fin rays. Furthermore, A. goyacensis possesses a black stripe extending along midlateral body portion, more conspicuous in alcohol preserved specimens. These characteristics allow its inclusion in the putative “black lateral stripe” sub-group of A. bimaculatus species complex. From the species of this complex it differs by the black lateral stripe shape, pattern of chromatophores on the flank, coloration of the caudal fin, scales on the lateral line, branched rays on anal fin, eye diameter, and caudal peduncle depth. Comments about the color pattern in Astyanax bimaculatus species complex are added.

多線唬爛燈(Hollandichthys multifasciatus)為雜食性, 且從小到大偏好不同

文獻來源: Abilhoa V, Bornatowski H, Otto G. 2009. Temporal and ontogenetic variations in feeding habits of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae) in coastal Atlantic rainforest streams, southern Brazil Neotropical Ichthyology 7(3): 415-420. [全文下載]

Feeding habits of the characin Hollandichthys multifasciatus were investigated. Samplings were made between March 2004 and February 2005 in two black water streams of the coastal Atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. The diet, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative methods, included aquatic and terrestrial insects, decapods, oligochaetes, plants and spiders. Large individuals feed mainly on plants, terrestrial insects, and spiders, whereas small fish feed basically on plants and oligochaetes. The species showed an omnivorous feeding habit, and its diet was composed of autochthonous (mainly oligochaetes) and allochthonous (plants and terrestrial insects) material.

圖片連結: www.hippocampus-bildarchive.de


文獻來源: Scarabotti PA, Parma MJ, López JA, Ghirardi R. 2009. Dermal lip protuberances associated with aquatic surface respiration in juveniles of the piscivorous characid Salminus brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Characidae). Neotropical Ichthyology 7(3): 459-464. [全文下載]

Some South American freshwater fishes can improve their capability of aquatic surface respiration (ASR) by developing dermal lip protuberances in the lower jaw. This adaptation was thought to be limited to omnivorous or herbivorous fishes. The present work provides the first evidence that juveniles of a piscivorous characid, Salminus brasiliensis, develop dermal lip protuberances during periods of hypoxia in floodplain ponds of the Salado River, in Argentina. The protuberance of S. brasiliensis involves dermal portions of both jaws exhibiting lateral lobes on the sides of the mouth arranged in the vertical plane. Water dissolved oxygen concentrations less than or equal to 1.05 mgl-1 were associated with a remarkable increase in lip protuberance. The lateral lobes of the protuberance in this species may limit the access of water to the anterior portion of the mouth which is positioned nearer to the oxygenated surface water during ASR. Finally, ASR, complemented with the development of dermal lip protuberances, can be considered a valuable strategy to survive in hypoxic environments, even for carnivorous fishes with elevated oxygen requirements.

圖片連結: wikipedia (photo credit: David Morimoto)

巴西中部投肯庭河流域產洞穴盲眼大鬍子的生殖行為, 發育與眼部退化

文獻來源: Secutti S, Trajano E. 2009. Reproductive behavior, development and eye regression in the cave armored catfish, Ancistrus cryptophthalmus Reis, 1987 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), breed in laboratory. Neotropical Ichthyology 7(3): 479-490. [全文下載]

The troglobitic armored catfish, Ancistrus cryptophthalmus (Loricariidae, Ancistrinae) is known from four caves in the São Domingos karst area, upper rio Tocantins basin, Central Brazil. These populations differ in general body shape and degree of reduction of eyes and of pigmentation. The small Passa Três population (around 1,000 individuals) presents the most reduced eyes, which are not externally visible in adults. A small group of Passa Três catfish, one male and three females, reproduced spontaneously thrice in laboratory, at the end of summertime in 2000, 2003 and 2004. Herein we describe the reproductive behavior during the 2003 event, as well as the early development of the 2003 and 2004 offsprings, with focus on body growth and ontogenetic regression of eyes. The parental care by the male, which includes defense of the rock shelter where the egg clutch is laid, cleaning and oxygenation of eggs, is typical of many loricariids. On the other hand, the slow development, including delayed eye degeneration, low body growth rates and high estimated longevity (15 years or more) are characteristic of precocial, or K-selected, life cycles. In the absence of comparable data for close epigean relatives (Ancistrus spp.), it is not possible to establish whether these features are an autapomorphic specialization of the troglobitic A. cryptophthalmus or a plesiomorphic trait already present in the epigean ancestor, possibly favoring the adoption of the life in the food-poor cave environment. We briefly discuss the current hypotheses on eye regression in troglobitic vertebrates.

越濁越歡樂 - 淡水魟所激揚起的塵土會吸引四種慈鯛靠近尾隨

文獻來源: Garrone-Neto D, Sazima I. 2009. The more stirring the better: cichlid fishes associate with foraging potamotrygonid rays. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7(3):499-501. [全文下載]

One hunting tactic of freshwater rays (Potamotrygonidae), termed “undulate the disc and stir substrate”, is here reported to attract cichlids at two sites in the upper Paraná River. The ray species involved in such association are Potamotrygon falkneri and P. motoro, whose activity attract four cichlid species, namely Crenicichla britskii, Satanoperca pappaterra, Cichla kelberi, and Geophagus proximus, the two latter non-native species to the study area. The cichlids approach a ray when it begins to stir the substrate and form sediment clouds, and remain close to the ray during this activity only. The association is here regarded as following behavior even if very transient.

Astyanax xavante - 一種產於巴西中部阿拉圭河中游之新種脂鯉

文獻來源: Garutti, V. & Venere, P.C. (2009): Astyanax xavante, a new species of characid from middle rio Araguaia in the Cerrado region, Central Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (3): 377-383. [全文下載]

Astyanax xavante is described from a creek of the middle rio Araguaia drainage located in the Cerrado region of the Brazilian Central Plateau. The new species is distinguished from congeners by the combination of pigmentation, morphometric, meristic, morphologic, and tooth features. Ecological notes for A. xavante are included.


文獻來源: Menezes, N.A. & Weitzman, S.H. (2009): Systematics of the Neotropical fish subfamily Glandulocaudinae (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (3): 295-370. [全文下載]

The systematics of the Glandulocaudinae is reviewed in detail and justification for the recognition of the group as a subfamily is discussed. The subfamily Glandulocaudinae consists of three genera: Lophiobrycon with one species plesiomorphic in some anatomical features but some others exclusively derived relative to the species in the other genera; Glandulocauda with two species intermediate in phylogenetic derivation; and Mimagoniates with seven species (one new), all more phylogenetically derived concerning their pheromone producing caudal-fin organs and with other anatomical characters presumably more derived than in the species of the other genera. Glandulocauda melanogenys Eigenmann, 1911, is considered a junior synonym of Hyphessobrycon melanopleurus Ellis, 1911. A replacement name, Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman, is proposed for G. melanopleura Eigenmann, 1911. Gland cells found in the caudal-fin organs of all species are histologically indistinguishable from club cells and probably secrete a pheromone during courtship. The club cells are associated with somewhat modified to highly derived caudal scales forming a pheromone pumping organ in the more derived genera and species. This subfamily is distributed in freshwaters of eastern and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northeastern Uruguay.

蓋亞那布郎庫河系上游產鯨鯰新種 - Cetopsidium soniae

文獻來源: Vari, R.P. & Ferraris, C.J. Jr. (2009): New species of Cetopsidium (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae) from the upper rio Branco system in Guyana. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7 (3): 289-293. [全文下載]

Cetopsidium soniae, new species, is described from the Takutu River basin of southwestern Guyana, within the upper portions of the rio Branco of the Amazon basin. The new species differs from its congeners in details of pigmentation, the length of the pelvic fin, the form of the first rays of the dorsal and pectoral fins in mature males, the relative alignment of the dorsal and ventral profiles of the postdorsal portion of the body, the position of the anus, and the depth of the body. DNA barcodes were generated for the holotype and paratype. An examination of other samples of Cetopsidium from the rio Branco system extends the range of C. pemon into the Ireng River system of Guyana.

2009年9月29日 星期二

經歷101年後所有的常見王蛇又被重新視為五個獨立的物種(東部王蛇, 黑王蛇, 布魯克王蛇, 沙漠王蛇, 加州王蛇)

文獻來源: Pyron RA, Burbrink FT. 2009. Systematics of the Common Kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula; Serpentes: Colubridae) and the burden of heritage in taxonomy. Zootaxa 2241: 22-32.

We present a systematic revision of the Lampropeltis getula group, based on a recent range-wide phylogeographic analysis. We define our theoretical and operational concepts of species delimitation, and provide diagnoses based on mitochondrial DNA evidence, ecological niche modeling, morphology, and historical precedence. We find support for the recognition of five distinct species, which bear the name of the nominate subspecies found primarily within the range of each phylogeographic lineage: the Eastern lineage (Lampropeltis getula, Eastern Kingsnake), the Mississippi lineage (L. nigra, Black Kingsnake), the Central lineage (L. holbrooki, Speckled Kingsnake), the Desert lineage (L. splendida, Desert Kingsnake), and the Western lineage (L. californiae, California Kingsnake). Interestingly, all of these taxa had originally been described as distinct species and recognized as such for up to 101 years (in the case of L. californiae) before being demoted to subspecies. We discuss the impact that increasingly detailed genetic information from phylogeographic analyses may have on traditional taxonomy.









大綠鬣蜥咬人是因為人要抓牠, 但被這個記者寫得好像主動攻擊人一樣

一樣是流浪在外面的動物, 爬行類動物被抓, 被折騰, 就沒見到過任何一個動保團體呼籲要尊重動物權啦, 要怎樣又怎樣的, 感覺上只有貓狗是動物, 是人類的好朋友, 其它東西最好是眼不見為淨抓去關起來不要讓大家知道就好? 如果把這篇文章的蟒與蜥換成貓與狗(狗被圍捕也會咬人啊), 應該馬上就有人揪團要去認養啦, 祈福啦, 一人一信啥的. 所以我想這就是人對其它生物的bias, 就是雙重標準, 就是選擇性的同情心.

燕巢 巨蜥咬人、大蟒吃雞【聯合報╱記者顏福江/燕巢報導】2009.09.29 03:42 am






【2009/09/29 聯合報】



Hemigrammus sp. 碧玉燈 x 2 (這....有請燈神)*
Characidae sp. 混在酒紅金燈中之半透明雜燈 x 1
Puntius sp. cf. foerschi 混在彩虹小丑燈中輸入之小型鯉科 x 2
Rasbora sp. cf. einthovenii 混在
彩虹小丑燈中輸入之小型鯉科 x 5
Corydoras haraldschultzi 皇冠黑珍珠鼠 x 5*
Corydoras nijsseni 寬帶公主鼠 x 2* (因為有公主病所以繼續買)
Corydoras megametae shortnose 美格鼠(短吻) x 1
Rhinodoras boehlkei 紫羅藍盔甲貓(=黃紋大嘴鐵甲武士, 黃紋大嘴盔甲貓) x 4*

Chrysichthys longipinnis 銀光大眼貓 x 2*
Belontia signata 梳尾天堂魚 (= 梳尾天堂鳥, 火燄鬥魚) x 20
Iksookimia(?) sp. 豹紋鰍 x 4
Botia striata 印度黃金寬帶鼠 x 5
Schistura balteata 彩虹三色鰍 (=三色彩虹鰍, 粉紅三色鰍, 斑馬彩虹鰍) x 4
Pseudogastromyzon sp. "斑馬"提琴鼠 x 4
Mogurnda sp. cf. adpersa "七彩"塘鱧 x 2 (不是Tateurundina ocellicauda)
Melanotaenia parkisoni 帕金森美人(???) x 6
Boa constrictor imperator 哥倫比亞紅尾蟒 x 2 (拿來解決野鼠問題)

今天最令人振奮的是買到多年不見的斯里蘭卡產美魚Belontia signata, 而且又穩又便宜. 上一次看到這條魚已經是我的國小與高中時期, 另一種產在馬來半島的Belontia hasselti雖然曾在兩年前小量進口(阿勇水族), 但是當時的魚的狀況不是很穩, 因此就一整個無緣. 基本上Belontia不能算是溫和的魚, 所以不可與小魚混養, 水溫得維持24度以上, 以微酸的軟水來飼養狀況較佳. 有些飼養者建議把這條魚和比牠大一點的魚混養可以降低牠們的緊張. 飼養經驗可參考aquaworldaquariumadvice的說明.

至於那些爬鰍, 啥鰍和塘鱧的鑑定阿就有空再說, 有點小複雜.

魚隻來源: 台族水族, 石頭水族 & APT*
圖片連結: aquariumadvice.com

2009年9月28日 星期一


Eryx colubrinus 埃及沙蟒 x 1
Lampropeltis triangulum nelsoni 納爾遜奶蛇(白化) x 1
Boa constrictor imperator 哥倫比亞紅尾蟒 x 2 (買來抓亂跑的野鼠)
Morelia spilota variegata 地毯蟒 x 1 (買來抓亂跑的野鼠)
Amphisbaena alba 白蚓蜥 x 1Poropanchax brichardi 布氏剛果燈鱂 (=紅翅七彩藍眼鱂) x 22 (參考美國自然史博物館Congo Project所提供之圖片)
Microctenopoma sp. (congicum or fasciolatum) 西非軍艦 (待確定) x 4Corydoras sp. cf. acutus or blochi Belem 黑鰭鼠 (貝倫產) x 2
Corydoras davidsandsi 大衛鼠 x 2
Corydoras aurofrenatus 銀翅鼠 (=鑽紋長腰鼠) x 2
Corydoras nijsseni 寬帶公主鼠 x 15 (據說是十年等待 唯一真愛) (抓這條魚要聽這個) (看不懂這個梗私下問我)
Corydoras serratus 薩瑞塔鼠 x 2
Corydoras serratus (C38 form) 帝王紅頭鼠 (=薩瑞塔鼠) x 2
Corydoras "megametae shortnose" 美格鼠(短吻) x 3
Corydoras "megametae
semi-longnose" 美格鼠(半長吻) x 3
Corydoras megamelini semi-longnose 巨型大衛鼠(半長吻) x 2Corydoras "sp. cf. evelynae Brazil" 巴西煙圈鼠 (等於新煙圈鼠嗎???) x 2
Corydoras elegans
Rio Anori 艾利根鼠(亞龍產) x 5 (Rio Anori在這邊)
Polypterus delhezi
斑節恐龍(剛果產野生) x 3
Bathyaethiops breuseghemi 紅背月球燈(=紅頂月球燈) x 3
Phenacogrammus altus 歐斯德月球燈 x 1
Clupeocharax sp. schoutedeni "超級火燄剛果" x 18 (學名待確認, 見上圖, 另可比較櫻桃火燄剛果的長相)
Alestiidae sp. 學名待查之非洲脂鯉科魚種 x 1 (混在布氏剛果燈鱂)
Thalassophryne amazonica 南美淡水石頭魚 x 2
今日主題為教師節大採購. 有關Microctenopoma fasciolatumcongicum的鑑定問題, 在先前的post中已經提到. 雖然這次的魚分別以fasciolatumcongicum為名義進口, 不過目前還看不出什麼明顯的差別.

所謂貝倫產的黑旗(鰭)鼠倒底是什麼樣的魚一直讓我很疑惑. 這條魚與華洋水族(貨源:千銘實業)與台族水族所進口的黑旗鼠其實只有在胸部的斑點紊亂程度以及側線的黑線長短有點小差別, 不過早在1998年日本雜誌上就把這樣的魚叫作Corydoras sp. "Belem"而並未將牠當成acutus. 甚至還有其它的說法認為這條魚是"blochi"的某個"型". 在Ian Fuller的書中(p.331)有條魚叫C109, 在他書中的p.46-47也介紹了acutus, 但神奇的是他擺的圖片與日本及德國的愛好者的認知剛好是相反的. 也就是說Ian Fuller所認為的C109產在Belem, 但長相卻是在台灣市面上認知的一般黑鰭鼠, 而Ian Fuller所認知的一般黑鰭鼠的圖片卻恰巧是台灣, 日本與德國愛好者所認知的Belem產鼠魚, 所以是他的照片放錯了嗎? 另外acutusC24, C42, C77的關係也很曖昧.

鼠魚的多態性(polymorphism)一向是對分類鑑定造成困擾的主因之因, 過去的鼠魚研究者通常只就一些基礎的形態特徵切割鑑識物種, 然而若以分子系統分類學方法重新檢視這些魚之間的關係, 我們就能發現多態性以及天然雜交很可能盛行於大多數的鼠魚物種. 以C. serratus來說, 我們現在可以比較能夠確信它與C38其實就只是同一種魚的不同色型. 然而所謂的C38事實上可以發現具有"淡淡紅頭"的個體. 說到紅頭, 這次大量進口的公主鼠讓我們充滿興趣. 所謂的紅頭鼠家族其實只是一群長得很像的鼠魚的集合, 例如adolfoi, duplicareus, imitator, nijsseni, serratus, C38與burgessi. 然而這些鼠魚並非親緣關係最近的類群. 有趣的是, 在這些紅頭鼠中, 體色多樣性最高的是serratus(含C38)與nijsseni, 而其它物種的花紋樣式則非常穩定. 這種"一個多態型物種與數個單態型物種發生擬態關係"的現象在全球各主要大陸皆有案例, 此種複雜的物種交互關係也一直是生態學者長期的研究課題.

然後, 我快被那些什麼新xx鼠, 長吻巨型xx鼠搞昏了. 我想在這邊釐清幾點:

  • L-Welse上很清楚說到,C84是巴西魚(短吻),C85是秘魯魚(尖吻),兩者根本不一樣。Ian Fuller的Corydoras World也持一樣的看法。
  • 但, planetcatfish說C084與C085是同一條魚,我認為是整個搞錯
  • 但, I Love Corydoras網頁認為C084與C085是同一條魚, 而且同等於"mega melini" (混有尖短吻兩物種),而"mega metae"則是另一條魚
  • 然後, 台灣一開始把mega metae叫"美格鼠", 把mega melini叫"巨型長吻大衛鼠", 然後, 無論是mega metae或mega melini在台灣某些進口商的報價單上又報標示為super davidsandsi.
  • 然後, 又冒出一隻鼠叫新大衛鼠 (石頭水族與台族水族都進口過), new davidsandsi, 但日本人認知的new davidsandsi長這樣, 也有半長吻, 也有短吻. 但我非常不確定new davidsandsi這個名稱, 無論是中文, 或英文, 是否都被國內外的進出口商與採集者混用了? 甚至有人認為new davidsandsi指的是C101.
  • 所以呢, 目前我們的初步研究結果傾向於支持幾個結論 - (1) 無論是mega metae或mega melini的半長吻或短吻者都是不同的物種, 而且與metae或melini都沒有直接的關係; (2) 體側是否有雜斑並不是一個很好的鑑識特徵.
然後, 那個在日本很貴的new evelynae, 真的就是石頭水族&APT進口的巴西煙圈鼠嗎? arcuatus, super arcuatus, (=C20), arcuatus longnose, narcissus, 在巴西的Purus, Ucayali這些上游地區是共棲的. 正因為這些鼠魚都分布在這個區域, 因此這又燃起了我對於"所有煙圈鼠系列皆是共域鼠魚的雜交產物"這個長期猜測的興趣. 若是憑我不科學未經證實的猜測, 巴西產的evelynae煙圈III型都可能是天然雜交個體, 且其親本之一是印第安鼠, 或超級印第安鼠. 但是哥倫比亞的evelynae或甚至是所謂的哥倫比亞煙圈鼠的親本之一則很有可能是melinimetae. 至於所謂的長吻煙圈會不會就是超級長吻印第安鼠與其它共域的鼠魚雜交所產生的稀有個體呢? I Love Corydoras上所顯示的robustus與super arcuatus的雜交後代非常耐人尋味. 事實上, 在日本流通的類似new evelynae的鼠魚有兩隻, 一隻是真正的new evelynae, 另一隻則真的只是一般印第安或超級印第安鼠的幼魚, 那麼石頭水族&APT的巴西煙圈鼠是何者? 就有待大家自己思考或花學費印證了 (見scotcat的說明)

今天比較大的驚喜其實是那個"超級火燄剛果"(亂取的名字). 報價單上的學名是Alestopetersius hilgendorfi, 其實看起來完全不像啊. 根據Poll在1967年對非洲脂鯉科的分類研究, hilgendorfi是比較接近一般火燄剛果或黃剛果的魚, 其模式標本長這個樣子(點此見影像). 這條"超級火燄剛果"乍看像是Glaser出口的火燄剛果(見此說明), 但它的成體只有4-4.5cm大, 臀鰭的形態具有明顯的雌雄異型性, 體型乍看之下就是放大的安東尼燈(Lepidarchus adonis)的血紅色版本, 可是臀鰭看起來像Micralestes, 背鰭還有一個白斑, 整條魚就像白翅玫瑰旗的體色套在非洲脂鯉的形態上, 非常特別. 以外形來說, 這條魚讓我想到Duboisialestes bifasciatus, 但是仍有一些差異, 進一步的鑑定結果正在請教近年鑽研非洲脂鯉科分類的Vreven. 對Alestiidae屬級鑑定有興趣者可參考Congo Project所提供的檢索表, 另外請參見樂天市場的圖片.

野生的斑節恐龍總算出現了. 這次進口的個體花紋非常漂亮, 與日本人所謂的剛果產色型(紋路粗且整齊)是吻合的, 然而只要是野生的多鰭魚就會有三代蟲感染的問題, 在處理上必須要非常謹慎.

魚隻來源: 石頭水族 & APT
圖片連結: rva, 石頭水族, aqua-bonito, www.amazon-exotic-import.de

2009年9月27日 星期日


今天由石頭水族&APT輸入的燈鱂. Poropanchax brichardi (=Apolocheilichthys brichardi)是比利時魚類學者Max Poll於1971年所描述的魚種. 當時他把這個物種擺在一個新屬 - Congopanchax, 隨後有些魚類學者認為此種應該移入Poropanchax這個屬, 亦有學者認為Poropanchax就是Apolocheilichthys的同物異名, 因此fishbase採用Apolocheilichthys brichardi這個種學名. 然而與所謂的Lampeyes相關的屬還有MicropanchaxLacustricola等屬, 這兩個屬與藍眼燈樣的魚看起來沒什麼很大的區別, 怎麼有這麼多的名字呢? 這個問題牽涉兩個層次, 第一是所謂的藍眼燈Lampeyes的科級分類地位是什麼? 第二是所有被稱為Lampeyes的魚來自同一個共祖嗎? 第三則是Apolocheilichthys這個屬的範圍倒底是什麼? 整個齒鯉目的親緣關係與系統分類工作在近十年有非常大的變革. Costa在1998年所撰寫的一篇文章匯整了當時根據形態證據所認知的齒鯉目高階系統分類架構, Huber在1999年的Cybium上發表了一篇文章根據當時所知資訊總結整個燈鱂亞科(Apolocheilichthyinae, Lampeyes)系統分類回顧與更新. Ghedotti在1990年時根據形態特徵重建了所謂花鱂總科(Poecilioidea)的親緣關係, 在這篇文章中, 他支持許多學者的假說認為所謂的燈鱂應該屬於鱂科, 然而他也認為Apolocheichthys這個屬應該限用於女王斑節鱂(A. spilauchen)這個種, 而且整個亞科只包含這個種. 至於Micropanchax, LacustricolaPoropanchax都應該是有效的屬, 並且什麼紅背女王鱂, 鳥頭鱂同屬於絲足鱂亞科(Procatopinae). 所以根據他的看法, 所謂的Lampeyes其實分屬於Apolocheilichthyinae與Procatopinae兩個亞科, 並不是單系群, 而brichardi這條魚很可能不屬於Apolocheilichthys, 但是在Ghedotti的文章之後並沒有較新的證據與假說. 意思就是說, 如果想要在google找這條魚的資料, 必須要使用好幾個不同的學名組合才能找得到了(如: Apolocheilichthys brichardi, Micropanchax brichardi, Congopanchax brichardi, Poropanchax brichardi, 與日名コンゴパンチャックス・ブリチャージ) aka.org上面的討論提到這條漂亮的魚不耐運送, 經常只在底層歪歪倒倒地游著, 在剛入缸時似乎需要悉心照料. 但也有飼養者認為此魚十分耐命(tough), 屬於好養的魚種. 在繁殖方面可參考日本玩家所提供的飼養心得與缸內擺設(見此連結).

圖片連結: www.aka.org (photo credit: Manuran), 另可參考belowwater.com所提供的比較漂亮的照片


文獻來源: Werner, Y.L. (2009). How not to write in defense of threatened tortoises. Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(9): 471-473. [全文網址]

Prudent use of the limited conservation resources rests on solid taxonomy data. This is a critical review of a taxonomy paper aimed at conservation but in itself not fully reliable (“Genetic evidence for premature taxonomic inflation in Middle Eastern tortoises”, Parham et al., 2006, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 57: 955–964). Its authors consider that unjustified naming of species is detrimental to conservation. This reviewer considers the paper flawed in (a) selection and reportage of voucher specimens, partly erroneous or inaccurate; (b) methods; (c) scientific reasoning and conclusions; and (d) clarity of argumentation. Hence even if the results are supported by the more solid results of others, the paper in itself is considered not to be sufficiently reliable for systematics or conservation.

註: 我認為這篇文章是篇表文+戰文, Wener為耶路撒冷希伯萊大學榮譽教授, 教授脊椎動物與爬行動物學多年. 這篇文章的主要目的是質疑Praham et al.在2006年所發表的對於中東地區歐洲陸龜紛亂的分類研究結果. Wener緊咬一些證據標本的鑑定甚至是分布圖的繪圖問題試圖駁斥Praham et al.的研究不足以解決分類學的問題並提供對保育生物學的建議. 然而我認為Wener的這篇文章感覺上在大談一些他自己其實已經不太懂的分子演化議題, 而且他錯落的英文實在是很難令人看懂. 這篇文章甚至讓我覺得只能拿來貼blog, 而不應該發表在一個期刊上.

印度東北部產兔鮡屬(蝴蝶貓)之一新種 - Hara koladynensis

文獻來源: Anganthoibi, N. & Vishwanath, W. (2009): A new catfish, Hara koladynensis from northeastern India (Siluriformes: Erethistidae). Journal of Threatened Taxa 1 (9): 466-470. [全文下載]

A new Erethistid catfish species, Hara koladynensis is described from Koladyne
River, Mizoram, India. It is distinguished from its congeners in having rough (vs. smooth or serrated) anterior margin of dorsal spine; shorter pre-anal length (58.5-60.9% SL vs. 63.2-75.2), longer head (36.0-38.3% SL vs. 24.8-34.2%), longer post-adipose distance (18.6-21.9% SL vs. 12.3-18.3), and deeper body (21.9-25.2% SL vs. 11.5-20.9).


Uromastyx aegypticus 埃及王者蜥 x 1 (阿又有人養一養不養)

圖片連結: musca.exblog.jp

2009年9月24日 星期四

Gekko russelltraini - 一種產於越南同奈省春祿縣之守宮新種

文獻來源: Ngo VT, Bauer AM, Wood Jr. PL, Grismer JL. 2009. A new species of Gekko Laurenti, 1768 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Dong Nai Province, Southeastern Vietnam. Zootaxa 2238: 33-42.

A new endemic species of Gekko, G. russelltraini, is described from Chua Chan Mountain, an isolated granitic peak in the Xuan Loc district, Dong Nai province, southeastern Vietnam. The species is distinguished from its congeners by its moderate size (SVL 70.3–82.9 mm), 8–11 precloacal pores in males, 12–16 longitudinal rows of very weakly enlarged, smooth dorsal tubercles, 17–18 lamellae beneath digit IV of pes, and dorsal pattern of five to seven white vertebral blotches between nape and sacrum and four to seven pairs of short white bands on flanks between limb insertions. Gekko russelltraini is a member of a group of mid-sized Indochinese Gekko sharing similar habitus, scalation, and color pattern elements and is the seventh member of its genus confirmed for Vietnam.


Thalassophryne amazonica 南美石頭魚 x 1 (不是Potamobatrachus trispinosus)
Entomocorus radiosus 雙星迷你虎鯨 x 19
Chrysichthys longipinnis 銀光大眼貓 x 2
Tatia strigata 蕾絲豹鯨 x 21
Corydoras sp. cf. aeneus S. Brazil 南方咖啡鼠 (=コリドラス ダークレッドエネウス) x 3

Corydoras C054 亞塔米拉鼠 x 2
Corydoras punctatus 斑豹鼠 x 4
Corydoras punctatus longnose 長吻斑豹鼠 x 2
Corydoras armatus "高身"米老鼠 x 3"
Corydoras loretoensis 米老鼠 x 3"
Corydoras simulatus 長吻弓箭鼠 x 5 (不是一般認為的Corydoras cortesi)"
Corydoras C016 x 1"
Corydoras rabauti 紅黑帶鼠 x 4*
Corydoras treitlii 崔弟鼠 x 2
Corydoras sp. cf. aeneus (似CW041) 巴西產的有點像歐加金線鼠的東東 x 2
Corydoras NALC 狐狸吻煙圈鼠 x 2" (=帝王黑影鼠)
Peckoltia sp. L134 黃金斑馬 x 2 (很Q就買兩隻)
Pseudohemiodon apithanos 陰陽直昇機 x 5*
Pseudohemiodon sp. 類似老虎圓鍬直昇機 x 2*
Melanotaenia splendida inornata ???? 待查澳洲產彩虹魚 x 5"
Schistura pridii 斑馬鰍 (斑馬南鰍, 斑馬線鰍) x 3"
Eirmotus octozona 玻璃八間 x 10 (超QQ小型鯉)"
Xiphophorus helleri 青劍 (混在黑殼蝦中) x 2*

今日主題叫作, 血拼真是減壓的好方法(血到錢包一整個不見掉在台北捷運)

魚隻來源: 石頭水族 & APT, 華洋水族", 水世界*
圖片連結: aquatab.net, wikipedia,

2009年9月22日 星期二


尊貴、寵愛、限量 抓住貴婦心【聯合報╱記者袁青、顏甫珉/台北報導】
2009.09.22 03:36 am






Dior、CHANEL(vs 稀有鼠魚, 燈魚...)是貴太群的目標品牌之一,一件高級訂製,單一季破千萬元貴婦也不誇張,這種大戶當然不會出現在店上,到府試衣,或直接帶大戶去巴黎、香江下單也是常有。

還有一類貴太太是瞞著老公。通常這種貴太的採購「黃金」時機是週間下午兩點到四點,趁老公上班,接小孩下學前的空檔。還有貴婦每季都偷偷狂買,但很少衣服帶回家,從○六年到現在,在品牌倉庫還有數百萬家當。(vs 不管買什麼魚, 尤其是短鯛, 都說只要10元, 或是寄養在水館或朋友家)



【2009/09/22 聯合報】

2009年9月21日 星期一

透明小魚蝦的群聚可能是一種閃避視覺系捕食者的防禦策略, 並牽涉數量擬態(或稱社會擬態)

文獻來源: Carvalho LN, Zuanon J, Sazima I. 2009. The almost invisible league: crypsis and association between minute fishes and shrimps as a possible defence against visually hunting predators. Neotropical Ichthyology 4(2): doi: 10.1590/S1679-62252006000200008

Camouflage is one of the most widespread defence modes used by substrate-dwelling animals, whereas transparency is generally found in open-water organisms. Both these defence types are regarded as effective against visually guided predators. We present here three assemblages of similarly-sized freshwater fish and shrimp species which apparently rely on camouflage and transparency to evade some of their potential predators. In one of the associations, there is a transition from cryptic colours and translucency to transparency of the component species according to the position each of them occupies in the habitat. The likeness between the fishes and the shrimps is here regarded as a type of protective association similar to numerical or social mimicry. Additionally, we suggest that the assemblage may contain Batesian-like mimicry components.

圖片連結: Aquaristik ohne Geheimnisse

眼鏡蛇亞屬分類的重新劃設, 以及非洲噴毒眼鏡蛇亞屬(Afronaja)的設立

文獻來源: Wallach V, Wuester W, Broadley DG. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26-36. [全文下載]

The genus Naja Laurenti, 1768, is partitioned into four subgenera. The typical form is restricted to 11 Asian species. The name Uraeus Wagler, 1830, is revived for a group of four non-spitting cobras inhabiting savannas and open formations of Africa and Arabia, while Boulengerina Dollo, 1886, is applied to four non-spitting African species of forest cobras, including terrestrial, aquatic and semi-fossorial forms. A new subgenus is erected for seven species of African spitting cobras. We recommend the subgenus rank as a way of maximising the phylogenetic information content of classifications while retaining nomenclatural stability.

對埃及眼鏡蛇種群之親緣地理研究結果顯示阿拉伯半島西側與西非產族群皆分別為獨立物種 - 阿拉伯眼鏡蛇與塞內加爾眼鏡蛇

文獻來源: Trape J-F, Chirio L, Broadley DG, Wuester W. 2009. Phylogeography and systematic revision of the Egyptian cobra (Sepentes: Elapidae: Naja haje) species complex, with the description of a new species from West Africa. Zootaxa 2236: 1-25. [全文下載]

We use a combination of phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences and multivariate morphometrics to investigate the phylogeography and systematics of the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) species complex. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial haplotypes reveals a highly distinct clade of haplotypes from the Sudano–Sahelian savanna belt of West Africa, and that the haplotypes of Naja haje arabica form the sister group of North and East African N. h. haje. Multivariate morphometrics confirm the distinctness of the Arabian populations, which are consequently recognised as a full species, Naja arabica Scortecci. The Sudano-Sahelian populations are also found to represent a morphologically distinct taxon, and thus a separate species, which we describe as Naja senegalensis sp. nov. The new species differs from all other members of the N. haje complex by a combination of colour pattern and scalation characteristics (especially higher numbers of scale rows around the neck), and the possession of a unique clade of mtDNA haplotypes. The distribution of the new species includes savanna areas of West Africa, from Senegal to western Niger and Nigeria.

2009年9月20日 星期日

陸龜上路 高速路龜速

Well, 中廣的新聞沒有很精確. 那隻陸龜是一隻赫曼陸龜(Testudo hermanni)(就是上圖這隻), 赫曼怎麼會是大陸龜咧? 請參考倫敦幾個大報的原文: 電訊報(Telegraph), 倫敦標準晚報(London Evening Standard), 與倫敦地鐵報(Daily Mail)(照片超可愛)

陸龜上路 高速路龜速 2009-09-20






文獻來源: Lee JB, Johnson JB. 2009. Biogeography of the livebearing fish Poecilia gillii in Costa Rica: are phylogeographical breaks congruent with fish community boundaries? Molecular Ecology (Early View)

One of the original goals of phylogeography was to use genetic data to identify historical events that might contribute to breaks among communities. In this study, we examine the phylogeography of a common livebearing fish (Poecilia gillii) from Costa Rica. Our goal was to determine if phylogeographical breaks in this species were congruent with previously defined boundaries among four fish community provinces. We hypothesized that if abiotic factors influence both community boundaries and genetic structuring in P. gillii then we might find four clades within our focal species that were geographically separated along community boundary lines. Similarly, we expected to find most of the genetic variation in P. gillii partitioned among these four geographical regions. We generated DNA sequence data (mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear S7 small ribosomal subunit) for 260 individuals from 42 populations distributed across Costa Rica. We analysed these data using phylogenetic (parsimony and likelihood) and coalescent approaches to estimate phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes, patterns of gene flow and effective population size. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find four monophyletic groups that mapped cleanly to our geographical community provinces. However, one of our clades was restricted to a single province, suggesting that common earth history events could be responsible for both genetic structuring in P. gillii and fish community composition in this area. However, our results show a complex pattern of gene flow throughout other regions in Costa Rica where genetic structuring is not predicted by community province boundaries.

圖片連結: Aquaristikecke